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  • AdipoR and AdipoR have been reported to

    2024-04-01

    AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 have been reported to be present in almost all type of tissues and low tbtu levels have been observed in white adipose tissue (Inukai et al., 2005). These receptors have been observed to become deregulated with the onset of obesity, resulting in a reduced level of APN expression (Fisman and Tenenbaum, 2014). Physical exercise and a healthier dietary lifestyle have been suggested to have an opposite effect, increasing the circulating levels of APN within the body in addition to activation of its receptors (Izadi et al., 2012). One study has shown that reduced APN levels can decrease insulin sensitivity and associated risk factors such as obesity and cancer (Stefan et al., 2002). Studies have shown that a weight loss above 10% is associated with an increased level of APN, which in turn, is proposed to have an inverse relationship with obesity-linked cancers (Lang and Ratke, 2009). The association between APN receptors and malignancies needs to be further elucidated in order to develop better treatments for APN-related diseases.
    Adiponectin in colorectal cancer CRC begins in the colon or rectum, typically as a colorectal polyp that becomes tumorous over time. Other risk factors for development include hereditary history of CRC, genetic mutations, alcohol abuse, obesity, cigarette smoking, and a history of inflammatory bowel disease (Network, 2012, Bardou et al., 2013). CRC deaths have diminished with the utilization of colonoscopies and fecal occult blood tests resulting in the discovery and removal of polyps, averting CRC development (Kronborg et al., 1996). Some existing contradictory reports tbtu state that circulatory APN is inversely connected with insulin resistance and obesity and both are associated with the CRC growth in men (Wei et al., 2005). Also, low serum APN titers are seen in men with CRC in comparison to healthy men (Byeon et al., 2010). Studies by Wei et al. (2005) and Yamaji et al. (2010) measured plasma APN levels in both healthy men and men with CRC aged 40–75 years, and reported that diet and levels of physical exercise might influence the level of plasma APN. Other risk factors, for example, smoking and a family history of CRC development were likewise noted (Wei et al., 2005). As stated above, in a prospective study, men with the maximum quintile of APN levels were older than those in the lowest quintile and had higher risk for developing or showed development of adenoma (Wei et al., 2005, Yamaji et al., 2010). The CRC cases studied showed lower levels of APN, 7.4±2.1μg/mL, than the controls, 7.8±1.9μg/mL. Men had significantly lower APN levels than women with confirmed cases of CRC; 3.98 (3.08–5.21) μg/mL compared to 6.81 (4.93–8.65)μg/mL (Yamaji et al., 2010). This shows that expression of APN is affected by gender. A comparison of case patients and control subjects with respect to various factors, including anatomy, exercise, nutritional intake, drug abuse, mineral intake and levels of medicinal consumption (Demir et al., 2015) examined how the distribution of these factors shifted across quintiles of plasma APN. It was observed that the case patients had significantly lower APN levels and higher BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip proportions than the control subjects in addition to other dietary components. Likewise, case patients were more likely than control subjects to have a family history of CRC. As well as age has also shown to be an essential element and higher chance to develop CRC (Demir et al., 2015, Song et al., 2013). Furthermore, both studies established an inverse association of total APN with CRC and a relationship with obesity. A case control study was performed by Erdogan et al. (2016) that evaluated two groups in order to compare their APN level along with other cytokines. In this study, 68 individuals were involved out of which 41 patients with confirmed CRC and 27 subjects with no signs of CRC. It was observed that the level of APN in CRC patients and control subjects were close to each other. It is well known that obesity increases as the APN secretion level decreases (Alexandre et al., 2014). This is demonstrated in Erdogan et al. (2016) study where the control group with high BMIs has low APN levels. Another case control study was performed by Zekri et al. (2014) using 34 CRC patients, 27 colonic polyps (CP) patients, 24 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and 29 control subjects. It was observed that the mean concentration of APN was significantly higher in CRC and CP groups as compared to the IBD and control groups. It was also revealed that the APN is a reliable marker for early detection of CRC with good diagnostic accuracy as AUC was in the range of (0.8–0.89) (Zekri et al., 2014). Ayyildiz et al., (2014) performed a study with 58 CRC patients and 30 control subjects with an aim of exploring the expressions of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in CRC and its association with clinic-pathological properties and survival. It was observed that the risk of CRC is likely to be increased with lower Adipo-R1/-R2 expression and has no influence on the survival rate. A study conducted by Yunusova et al. [65] was aimed at investigating the serum adipokine levels and expression of adipokine receptors such as AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in patients with endometrial and CRC in relation with tumor invasion and lymph node involvement. It was observed that the expression of AdipoR1 was correlated with lymph node involvement, and AdipoR1 expression was associated with tumor size. These results also illustrate the involvement of adipose tissue hormones (leptin and APN) and APN receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) in tumor growth, invasion and lymphogenic metastasis (Yunusova et al., 2015). Recent studies also propose that APN might be an important factor in obesity related malignancies. This was demonstrated by Canhoroz et al. (2014) in a study that involved 53 patients who underwent surgical removal of stage II or III primary tumors and were evaluated for three years following their treatment. They found Average overall survival of CRC patients with APN expression was 1950days compared to 2010days for CRC patients without (P=0.786) (Canhoroz et al., 2014). These observations suggest that APN plays an important role in the CRC growth and progression through its pro-apoptotic and/or anti-proliferative effects.