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  • The leaves of Bambusa nutans B vulgaris B

    2024-04-17

    The leaves of Bambusa nutans, B. vulgaris, B. textilis McClure, B. vulgaris var. vittata, and Dendrocalamus oldhami are reported as promising natural alternatives to synthetic antioxidants as functional food ingredients (Tripathi et al., 2015). Luo et al. (2015), identified two novel flavonoids namely, 40-O-(700R, 800S)-800-guaiacylglyceryl)-pleioside, and apigenin 6-C-b-d-fucopyranosyl-7-O-b-d-glucopyranoside from the leaves of Neosinocalamus affinis, with significant antioxidative activity. Eleven compounds out of fourteen compounds which were identified and isolated from the leaves of Phyllostachys prominens, possess significant antioxidative activity (Xu et al., 2016). Liu et al. (2016) identified 38 compounds including organic acids, flavonoids and other substances and quantified 13 polyphenols. The methanolic extract of B. texilis leaves showed antioxidant and antiobesity activities when evaluated using a high fat diet rat model. Daswad et al. (2017) reported that aqueous and methanolic extract of Dendrocalamus strictus leaves possess promising antioxidant activity. Bamboo leaf antioxidants may thus offer promising avenues to prevent and control oxidative-stress related chronic and degenerative diseases.
    Antioxidant compounds and antioxidant properties of bamboo shoots Bamboo shoot, the emerging young culm is a popular ingredient in Asian cuisine and is used in the preparation of variety of dishes. The young juvenile shoots of many bamboo species are consumed as vegetables, salads, pickles, and in preparation of different types of curries and dishes in many Asian countries such as China, Korea, Japan, Thailand, Malaysia and India. In Korea, there are many traditional foods in which bamboo shoots are a prominent ingredient. One such dish that is now widely acquainted with global tastes and emerging as one of the representative dishes of Korean food is “bibimbap” which is a colorful dish with various vegetables and symbolizes the philosophy of Anhydrotetracycline hydrochloride with others. Bamboo shoot is being projected as a health food due to its nutritive value and presence of health promoting bioactive compounds with potential antioxidant activity (Kalita, Ganguly, & Devi, 2016; Nirmala et al., 2011). However, in addition to the nutritional and health benefits, the young shoots of many species contain the antinutrient cyanogenic glucosides which, is toxic and causes acridity in the shoots and is a major constraint for several people to have bamboo shoots as food. Hence, before consumption, the young shoots need to be processed by soaking, boiling, drying or fermentation to remove the cyanogenic glucosides to make the shoots palatable and safe to eat. According to ancient Chinese medicinal books, the consumption of young shoots help in improving digestion, relieving hypertension, preventing cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. The juvenile bamboo shoots are rich in nutrients, bioactive compounds, vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin E), amino acids and minerals and hence, play a significant role in maintaining good health (Kumbhare & Bhargava, 2007; Park & Jhon, 2009). It contains arginine and tyrosine as the major amino acids that otherwise is a minor component in common fruits and vegetables. Arginine plays a key role in the synthesis of glycoproteins. Tyrosine is a major precursor of several neurotransmitters and may directly affect processes in the brain including cognitive function. It also acts as a natural diuretic and helps to get rid of excess salts. Phyllostachys manii shoots have a high content of asparagine followed by tyrosine and valine. Asparagine is known for its key role in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins; it increases the resistance to fatigue and improves the smooth functioning of the liver. Valine is an essential amino acid important for maintaining muscle regulation of the immune system and cognitive functioning. Bamboo shoot also contains selenium, an important antioxidant in trace amount (Nirmala et al., 2011) and lysine, which lacks in cereals, plays an important role in growth and development. Fresh bamboo shoots have been found to be rich in potassium which helps to prevent blockage of blood vessels. Bamboo shoots are also rich in antioxidants and their antioxidant activity has been screened by several researchers (Kalita et al., 2016; Neményi et al., 2015). Realizing their nutritive value and health benefits, in some countries, the shoots have been used as additives in a variety of health foods, beverages, and medicines. Phenols, vitamin C, E and trace mineral elements (selenium, copper, zinc, manganese, iron) are the main antioxidant components present in bamboo shoots.