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  • br Steroidogenesis in the skin The synthesis of steroid

    2024-05-20


    Steroidogenesis in the skin The synthesis of steroid hormones takes place in many tissues of which the adrenal glands, ovaries, testis, placenta and Cy3 hydrazide are considered to be classical steroidogenic organs. Nevertheless, skin constitutes an important peripheral steroidogenic tissue. Steroidogenesis pathway mainly focused on androgen synthesis is summarized in Fig. 1 (Miller, 1988, Miller and Auchus, 2011). Human skin expresses key genes involved in sex hormone synthesis such as CYP11A1, CYP17A1, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), CYP19A1 (aromatase) among others (Slominski et al., 1996, Slominski et al., 2013, Zouboulis et al., 2007), suggesting that the skin has all the synthesis machinery to produce androgens de novo (Fig. 1). Although the skin can synthesize steroids de novo from cutaneous endogenous cholesterol, the main precursor used to produce steroids is adrenal DHEA-S. DHEA-S is hydrolyzed to DHEA by the steroid sulfatase located in the sebaceous glands and dermal papilla cells (DPC) in terminal hair follicles (Milewich et al., 1990, Hoffmann et al., 2001) whereas the enzymatic activity of 3β-HSD1 converts DHEA into androstenedione, and 17β-HSD3 converts androstenedione in testosterone (Chen et al., 2002). 17β-HSD is present in 5 different isoforms that function as a switch on/off mechanism for the production of the most potent sexual steroids. Isotypes 17β-HSD3 and 5 catalyze production of testosterone from androstenedione, while isotypes 17β-HSD2 and 4 catalyze the opposite reaction, oxydizing testosterone into the weak androgen androstenedione (Chen et al., 2002) (Fig. 1). Plucked anagen hair follicle showed high level expression of 17β-HSD2 both at inner root sheath (IRS) and outer root sheath (ORS) keratinocytes (Courchay et al., 1996). A similar expression pattern was observed in sebaceous glands with a predominant expression of 17β-HSD2 compared to the other isotypes probably by transcriptional regulation (Thiboutot et al., 1998). Moreover, a higher oxidative/reductive 17β-HSD ratio was observed in non-acne-prone skin compared to facial skin, demonstrating a possible protective role of 17β-HSD in androgen effects on sebum over secretion (Thiboutot et al., 1998). Enzyme 5α-reductase has three isotypes: 5α-reductase type 1, 2 and 3 (Andersson and Russell, 1990, Uemura et al., 2008) (Fig. 1). Type 1 is predominantly expressed in skin and annexes (sebaceous glands, sweat glands and hair follicles), type 2 is expressed in the epididymis, the seminal vesicles, the prostate and the genital fibroblasts (Thiboutot et al., 2000, Eicheler et al., 1995, Nikolakis et al., 2016). Finally, type 3 has shown to be expressed both in benign and neoplastic prostate tissue, but overexpressed and more broadly distributed in advanced prostate cancer (Godoy et al., 2011). The activity of 5α-reductase in human growing and resting hair follicles plucked from male scalp was first identified in 1972 by Takayasu (Takayasu and Adachi, 1972). A subsequent study showed that only 5-α reductase 1 inhibitor suppressed 5-α reductase 1 activity in plucked hairs, indicating that this enzyme corresponded to isozyme type 1 (Gerst et al., 2002). Other authors have shown that both 5α-reductase 1 and 2 activity were found in dissected scalp hair follicles, with a higher expression in balding than occipital hair follicles (Sawaya and Price, 1997). Furthermore, DPC from beard showed in vitro, a higher 5α-reductase 2 activity than DPC from occipital hair (Itami et al., 1990, Itami et al., 1991). It was also reported that 5α-reductase 1 mRNA is expressed in all scalp hair follicles, whereas 5α-reductase 2 mRNA is only expressed in DPC or dermal sheath cells obtained from scalp hairs (Asada et al., 2001). Likewise, the pseudohermaphroditism consequence of 5α-reductase 2 deficiency, showed very strong evidence that beard hair growth and AGA hair loss could be related to 5α-reductase 2 activity and not to 5α-reductase 1 activity (Inui and Itami, 2013). The activity of 5α-reductase in hair follicles is mainly located in DPC: this activity is 14 and 80-fold higher in DPC from scalp and beard respectively than in the remaining hair follicles (Eicheler et al., 1998). Even if controversial reports have been published, most of the results seem to indicate that 5α-reductase 1 activity is ubiquitously distributed in the hair follicles, whereas 5α-reductase 2 is located in DPC from beard and AGA hair follicles, pointing out the dermal papilla as an androgenic target.